The developments in the field of science, engineering, and technology have made human beings to utilize the changes and improve the comforts in life and enjoyment. The standard lifestyle leads to a high demand for energy consumption. The energy should be available at any time, place, and under circumstances where desired. Here comes the use of batteries, which provide portable electrical energy. The different chemicals and materials are used in the manufacturing of cathodes, anodes, separators, and electrolytes. This affects the properties of batteries. Considering those properties, new battery technologies with transformative potential are proposed which are cheaper, denser, lighter, and more powerful.
Sodium-ion (Na-ion) battery is a battery technology that is identical to lithium-ion batteries. Battery-grade salts of sodium are cheaper than the lithium. Here, the batteries positive electrode is made up of sodium-based material. The performance of this battery is very effective, and it is used for stationary applications. It has the ability to store the excess electricity generated by renewable energy sources. The energy density is low when compared to the lithium-ion batteries.
Lithium-sulfur battery is a battery technology that has a higher energy density than the lithium-ion batteries. The cells positive electrode is made up of sulfur, and the negative electrode is made up of lithium. It is also a type of rechargeable battery with high specific energy. During charging, the reverse process takes place, and during discharge, the lithium anode is consumed, and sulfur is transformed into a variety of chemical compounds. It is used in the aviation and space industries.
A solid-state battery is also another type of battery technology that is proposed as an alternative to the Lithium-ion battery technology. The difference between the technologies is that in Li-ion batteries ions move from one electrode to another across the liquid electrolyte but in the solid-state, a solid compound allowing lithium ions to migrate within replacing the liquid electrolyte. The solid compound has very high ionic conductivity. These types of batteries are non-flammable and used in pacemakers, RFID and wearable devices.
Battery technology has lots of obstacles to overcome. With the continuing progress in the technology, the various batteries powering the future will soon be available.